Sampling in Monitoring and Evaluation

What is sampling?

When assessing need to carry out development monitoring and evaluation, one of the most important decisions is how to select the sample to be used. In the most simple terms, a sample is a sample of something. In the context of development monitoring, a sample is a selected subset of the target population.

The purpose of the sample is to provide information about the target population. For example, if the target population is a whole community, a sample might be drawn from one or more communities, or if the target population is a group of students, a sample might be drawn from one or more schools. In both cases, the sample is a subset of the target population.

When we are collecting information from a target population, we want to make sure that we are collecting information from the correct individuals. Sampling is the process of selecting the individuals from the target population who will be included in the study.

Sampling can be done in a number of ways, including simple random sampling, systematic sampling, stratified sampling, cluster sampling, and multi-stage sampling.

Types of sampling

Simple random sampling

A simple random sample is a type of sample that is easy to create and is considered to be representative of the population from which the sample is taken. Simple random sampling uses a random selection of elements from a population.

The population is divided into a number of groups. Each group has an equal chance of being selected. The number of samples to be selected is determined. For example, if you want to select 10 people from a population of 100, you can use the formula: Let X = the number of elements in the population Let n = the number of elements in the sample.

Systematic sampling

Systematic sampling is a non-probability sampling method. It involves selecting a sample of elements that conform to a previously specified probability distribution, called the population.

Elements are selected at fixed intervals, or with a specific pattern in mind, and it is usually determined prior to the data collection stage. There are several different types of systematic sampling methods, but all involve conducting a random check to find what proportion of samples that conform to the population distribution.

Stratified sampling

Stratified sampling is a sampling method that is used to ensure an unbiased sample, to find all the hidden problems of the project after the baseline monitoring report, and to monitor the project’s progress.

In statistics, a stratified random sample is one form of cluster sampling. In a simple random sample, each element in the population has an equal chance of being selected. In stratified sampling, the population is divided into subgroups, and each element in the population has a different chance of being selected. The subgroups are called strata.

Cluster sampling

Cluster sampling is a variation of the random sampling method that aims to target a given population by dividing it into groups or clusters. Instead of random sampling, cluster sampling uses a statistical formula to calculate the sample size in each cluster. There are a number of factors that must be taken into account to get accurate results.

In its simplest form, you can define a cluster as any group or community from which you want to collect data. Cluster sampling can be done in school or in a hospital or in any organization.

Multi-stage sampling

Multi-stage sampling is a term used in survey research. It describes a method of selecting participants based on their characteristics. Multi-stage sampling is very common in survey research. It is used to ensure that a sample of the population is representative of that population. In a sample survey, the first stage of sampling is to select a sample from a list or a frame.

For example, a list of names of people who could potentially be in a sample might be a potential list for a sample. A frame would be a list of all the firms in a country. The list might be of registered voters or tax payers. So, a list of all tax payers might be a frame.


A survey is a method used to collect information from a sample of a population.  It is often used in project monitoring and evaluation.  The survey can be used to collect data about an individual, household or business.  The main benefit of a survey is the ability to collect data from a sample of a population.  This allows you to collect data from a large population, even if it is difficult, expensive, dangerous or even impossible to collect data from everyone.

Md. Kaysar Kabir

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