Quantitative tools include only quantitative questions
Quantitative data refer to numerical responses or responses that can be coded, such
as ―yes/no‖ questions. In contrast, qualitative data are longer responses or
discussions. Quantitative tools should include questions that generate quantitative
data only. Questions that generate quantitative numerical data include ―minutes to
reach nearest water source‖ and ―number of meals eaten yesterday,‖ for example.
Questions with coded responses allow respondents to reply with words or phrases
and are not limited to numerical responses. However, the coded responses for the
question quickly categorize the respondent‘s answer into one response in a list of
common responses provided. Refer to Annex B for guidance on developing
quantitative questions and to Annex C for common problems and solutions in
Include any open-ended questions required by the M&E plan in qualitative data tools.
State the units used in each question so that respondents provide comparable data
(e.g., meters vs. kilometers). Code responses whenever possible to ease the data
analysis process. Questions can be coded as ―yes,‖ ―no‖ or ―don‘t know.‖ Questions
also can be coded by offering a multiple-choice selection of a range of common or
expected responses. Coded responses may include ranges if you anticipate that these
ranges will be adequate for data analysis. For example, you may ask, ―how far is the
nearest drinking water source from your household?‖ Coded responses may include
―less than 1 km,‖ ―1 to 3 km‖ and ―5 km or more.‖
Refer to qualitative data to inform the coded responses. Create the list of possible
responses based on recent focus group discussions or other qualitative exercises in
which communities have provided feedback on related issues. If you have not had an
opportunity to conduct qualitative exercises or do not have recent qualitative data
available, refer to field staff or other persons on your team who are most
knowledgeable about a particular sector within your target communities.
Include both correct and incorrect options for knowledge-related questions. It is
important to understand the community’s level of awareness and common
misconceptions. Again, utilize the qualitative data to draft both correct and incorrect
options for these questions.
Always include an option of ―other‖ in the list of coded responses and provide
adequate space for enumerators to record the specific answers given by respondents.